In S1E14, Rory is studying in the kitchen with Lorelai. Rory says, “Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst.” Lorelai chimes in, “But everybody called her kitten.” Rory continues, “Married to Grand Duke Peter of Holstein in 1754.”
Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst, otherwise known as Catherine the Great, was the longest-ruling female leader of Russia. She expanded Russia’s power and influence following the assassination of her husband, Peter III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp.
(Catherine the Great actually had one additional name- she was born Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg.)